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Not one-size-fits-all

Architecture requires a great many different kinds of intelligence to function. The typical office is divided up into groups of design, technology, and management. And even within these areas, there are many different specialties. Yet typically within education, especially at the undergrad level, we have a one-size-fits-all approach. All students are expected to respond to the same problems, and are assess on the same basis. Students with different kinds of intelligence are often penalized within this system, and we frequently these people are lost to the profession.

I see a lot of different kinds of student. I have started a kind of taxonomy, and right now I have five basic genera within the family of architecture. Of course, each genus can be broken down further into different species. The genera I have identified are the Artist, the Gearhead, the Theorist, the Administrator, the Politician, and the Architect. The Artist excels at making form and concept. The Gearhead excels at technology. The Theorist excels at history and philosophy. The Administrator excels at organization. The Politician excels at engaging people. The Architect is the rare intelligence that can combine the qualities of most of the other genera.

We have a magically diverse world filled with amazing creative potential, and as a professional training ground, we have to figure out how to engage them all. This is one of the reasons I love group projects.Many of my colleagues don’t like collaborative work because they feel that the students individually aren’t displaying their mastery. I understand their point, but when in architecture is anything done by the single lone genius (other than in Ayn Rand fiction)?

Ordinarily 1 + 1 = 2. But in collaborative work I think that there is a kind of exponential condition where the work isn’t twice as good, but 4x. The students seem to complement each other. One of the best teams I had were the dregs leftover when everyone else paired up. These two seemed mismatched, but in reality the strengths augmented each other to arrive at a great result. It was a “hot mess” no doubt, but a thoroughly committed one. When it came time for grading, I was going to give one student a higher grade than the other, because I thought he was driving the bus. But he stood up for his colleague, and said the other more than pulled his weight.

I’m as guilty as everyone else in perpetuating the one-size-fits-all. In many a studio I have taught I have privileged the artist and the architect. The hardest are the poor first year students who struggle valiantly, but don’t have the inherent design ability. And we lose these hard working souls to the discipline, simply because we can’t find a way to include them.

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Perspective

This is a tough call – do we bother to teach analog drawing technique in an age where the ability of the computer to produce potentially astounding images?

My feeling is that the act of drawing is more about the mind. Training in analog drawing is more about understanding the construction of space, and less about the application of an outmoded means of representation. It engages fundamental modes of learning: cognitive skills of knowing, understanding, application, and analysis; the psychomotor skills of perceiving, guided response, profici

ency, and origination; and the affective skills of receiving, responding, valuing, and, one hopes, a change in character. And perhaps the specific skills are part of a dying art, but the meta skills, the discipline of thought, are universal.

I love the drawings of Jan Vredeman de Vries, a 16th century Dutch artist who wrote one of many treatises on perspective at the time. I came across a blog that has compiled parts of many such treatises. They are pedagogical, but he was clearly enjoying himself when he made them. I hope for that for my students. Drawing should not be a chore, but a release, a meditation, a joy.

Jan Vredeman de Vries - Perspective, 1604

Jan Vredeman de Vries – Perspective, 1604

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Internships

This is for all those students getting their first jobs, or even their fifth job. As per the NCARB requirements for professional licensure, approximately 3 years of interning are required. This is an extension of your architectural education. In school you learn certain basic concepts, and you get a well-rounded exposure to architecture. But another set of concepts is required and actually taught/learned in a professional workplace. I heard this great discussion about internships on the public radio program On The Media. As usual, they do their research. The┬áinterviews with interns were really quite illuminating. They describe the differences between paid and unpaid internships, but in general, this is a great article on how to work. The radio piece talks about the benefit of the internship to the intern. NCARB requires participation in a variety of different types of work in an office. You, the intern, have to be meticulous about keeping track of this, and advocating for yourself. The NCARB requirements are a tool for you, so that you won’t get handcuffed to the Xerox machine.

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Letter from Your Dance Teacher

Annie Coggan just sent me this “letter from your dance teacher.” It could just as easily be a letter from your architecture teacher, letter from your humanities teacher – the sentiment is still the same. Architecture, like dance, is an iterative process. Though there are often no right answers, there are plenty of wrong answers, and form is critical. It is the language. So a correction or critique is working to strengthen the form. It is a nice read. I used to yell a lot more, and I think I will return to that. It can be humiliating. But better that than to go about without a clear understanding of your strengths and weaknesses. Not to make anyone considering taking my class uneasy – I generally reserve this for those who are clearly not performing. I have sympathy for those who work hard but have fundamental disconnects.

This makes me think about another great piece of advice: get your shit together. Below is an incredibly funny email exchange that went viral a number of years ago. It is brilliant. What makes it brilliant is that Galloway remains a teacher, and taught this young man or woman important lessons. And he did it in overall a respectful and intelligent manner, never descending to name-calling or open insult.

As Galloway says, get the easy things right. Paying attention to deadlines, doing your homework, being aware of what is requested of you – these are the easy things. Most of the time we teachers are thankful for simple fulfillment of requirements, let alone going above and beyond. The converse of this is that there is often an expectation of high reward for simply doing the required. So for those who anticipate being my students in the future, be warned and encouraged. Be warned – you get out of the class what you put into it. My feedback will be in proportion to your effort. Be encouraged – success is a product of criticism, as Keesha Beckford says, so ask for the truth, always, even if it may hurt.

 

Get Your Shit Together – this is an email exchange between an unnamed student and Professor Scott Galloway at NYU’s Stern School of Business.

Subject: Brand Strategy Feedback

Prof. Galloway,

I would like to discuss a matter with you that bothered me. Yesterday evening I entered your 6pm Brand Strategy class approximately 1 hour late. As I entered the room, you quickly dismissed me, saying that I would need to leave and come back to the next class. After speaking with several students who are taking your class, they explained that you have a policy stating that students who arrive more than 15 minutes late will not be admitted to class. As of yesterday evening, I was interested in three different Monday night classes that all occurred simultaneously. In order to decide which class to select, my plan for the evening was to sample all three and see which one I like most. Since I had never taken your class, I was unaware of your class policy. I was disappointed that you dismissed me from class considering (1) there is no way I could have been aware of your policy and (2) considering that it was the first day of evening classes and I arrived 1 hour late (not a few minutes), it was more probable that my tardiness was due to my desire to sample different classes rather than sheer complacency. I have already registered for another class but I just wanted to be open and provide my opinion on the matter.

To which Professor Galloway responded:

Thanks for the feedback. I, too, would like to offer some feedback.

Just so I’ve got this straight…you started in one class, left 15-20 minutes into it (stood up, walked out mid-lecture), went to another class (walked in 20 minutes late), left that class (again, presumably, in the middle of the lecture), and then came to my class. At that point (walking in an hour late) I asked you to come to the next class which “bothered” you.

Correct?

You state that, having not taken my class, it would be impossible to know our policy of not allowing people to walk in an hour late. Most risk analysis offers that in the face of substantial uncertainty, you opt for the more conservative path or hedge your bet (e.g., do not show up an hour late until you know the professor has an explicit policy for tolerating disrespectful behavior, check with the TA before class, etc.). I hope the lottery winner that is your recently crowned Monday evening Professor is teaching Judgement and Decision Making or Critical Thinking.

In addition, your logic effectively means you cannot be held accountable for any code of conduct before taking a class. For the record, we also have no stated policy against bursting into show tunes in the middle of class, urinating on desks or taking that revolutionary hair removal system for a spin. However, xxxx, there is a baseline level of decorum (i.e., manners) that we expect of grown men and women who the admissions department have deemed tomorrow’s business leaders.

xxxx, let me be more serious for a moment. I do not know you, will not know you and have no real affinity or animosity for you. You are an anonymous student who is now regretting the send button on his laptop. It’s with this context I hope you register pause…REAL pause xxxx and take to heart what I am about to tell you:

xxxx, get your shit together.

Getting a good job, working long hours, keeping your skills relevant, navigating the politics of an organization, finding a live/work balance…these are all really hard, xxxx. In contrast, respecting institutions, having manners, demonstrating a level of humility…these are all (relatively) easy. Get the easy stuff right xxxx. In and of themselves they will not make you successful. However, not possessing them will hold you back and you will not achieve your potential which, by virtue of you being admitted to Stern, you must have in spades. It’s not too late xxxx…

Again, thanks for the feedback.

Professor Galloway

 

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Fear

I’m a yogi (I know, horrific image: me in shorts standing on my head). Without yoga I’d be a physical wreck. But entering into the world of yoga, one enters into an interesting philosophical construct as well. In the west, especially in Judaism and Christianity, we have the proscriptions of the Ten Commandments; in other words “thou shalt not.” The Yoga Sutras have a similar ten commandments, but five are proscriptions, and the other five are observances. Thus there is a balance between avoiding and seeking. In yoga, there are five afflictions or diseases: ignorance, egoism, attachment, aversion, and fear. Fear refers primarily to the fear of death, but this can also be viewed as fear of failure.

I bring this up because my students appear to be afraid to draw. I have experienced this fear myself. Even though very little is at stake, a blank sheet of paper can still be quite intimidating. But it is critical to overcome a fear and make things. Recall that the paper is not blank; it is already loaded with the ideas of the project. The paper is loaded with your own personal history. The paper is merely a vehicle. Recall that a drawing is not an end, but a part of a continuum. Sometimes you get it right, sometimes you make an awful mess. Sometimes it is from the messes that we learn the most. There is a fear that the hand is inadequate, that ugly drawings are going to be made. The drawing is not so much about the hand as it is about the mind. The drawing is merely a means for expressing ideas. The lines drawn are a notation. Once the idea forms, the drawing can start to take over. Apply experience to deepen the drawing. A drawing can almost always be saved, but it takes effort of the mind. A bad drawing is usually about a lack of depth of thinking, rather than a poor hand.

As a parting image, I include this drawing by John Hejduk. Hejduk had an awful hand. I get the sense that he held his pen like a 4 year old in his fist, point down. He certainly doesn’t have the elegance of Lebbeus Woods, or, referencing the current exhibit at MoMA, Henri Labrouste. But Hejduk’s work is not about the finesse of the drawing, but about the ideas they contain. To that end, his drawings are phenomenally successful – he has created an entire world.

 

hejduk-subject object 01

John Hejduk – Subject/Object

 

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Environmental Education

I just encountered the writing of David Orr, who writes about changing the focus of education. He says that all education is environmental education. If an education never dwells on environmental issues at all, this is as powerful as one focused on the environment. He specifically references the fact that economists are educated without a fundamental knowledge of physics and ecology – an understanding of the natural world upon which our economy rests. Thus the environmental education in this case places no value on physics and ecology.

I have written about the same concern earlier in this blog relative to architectural education. As architectural educators, we are not placing appropriate emphasis and concern on our natural world. We have a preoccupation with form and aesthetics. These are great things – don’t get me wrong – but as we urbanize we lose contact with those critical processes that fundamentally sustain us.

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Decoding the Review – mid Spring 2013

This review went pretty well for most. Of course I have the usual to say: some aren’t working as hard as they should be. But that is always the case (both that I will always want more, and that some will always not produce to their capability). Being able to focus like this is a luxury.

One big theme from the two days is that the “big view” was missing from most presentations. A single comprehensive view of the project in the site was needed. This can take many forms: physical model, digital model, hand-drawn perspectives or axonometrics. Anything that gives a sense of the totality of the project. The nature of the artifact is dependent upon the nature of each student’s investigation. It was difficult to read from the drawings presented, the overall form of the intervention into the site. There were some nice drawings, some were fantastic, but ultimately frustrating because it was difficult to assemble the project in our heads. This is why physical models still get so much attention in reviews – they are the easiest representation to understand the complexity of relationships.

The other theme has to be about the narrative of the project. Sometimes this is luck. The projects with the better confluence of ideas got the better reviews. They were easier to engage because there was a symmetry of the parts. When your project is sited on a former landfill turned into a vast public park, and you combine these elements into buildings built of trash and recycled materials, combined with a landscape that thinks of the changing seasons, this is a strong narrative. What makes it especially so is that it combines the narrative aspect, with the performance aspect. Thus the idea of the materials becomes a challenge for the building enclosure.

 

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Pam Warhurst: edible landscape

This TED talk is a really great story of just making it happen. A small town in England decides that it will convert its landscape into an edible landscape. And why not? Why should there be a stigma against an apple tree on the sidewalk? The energy we expend towards ornamentals can easily be put into edibles, and be as pretty as well. A nasturtium is a tasty leaf and flower. The environmentalist David Orr is doing something similar in Oberlin, Ohio. The city is supporting the development of new area farms, with the goal of locally producing 70% of the food the city eats (I think that 70% is a good number, what would life be without olive oil, wine, Parmesan, and citrus after all?).

This is an additional level of complexity for students to organize growing space in buildings and landscapes. Ultimately it is spatial – requiring thinking about the massing and space the plants make, but also what they need to grow and thrive.

IMG_1615

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Kids These Days

I was at the Center for Architecture in New York today. They had an exhibit of models made by kids. They were clearly controlled by the adults organizing the work, but there was a freshness and directness not seen among most of the college students with whom I work. The kids have no fears, whereas the college students seem to develop all kinds of hang ups that prevent them from just getting the ideas out. I especially like Fish Lake, which is shaped like a fish. Goofy, yes, but joyfully so. These things get the ideas across quickly and effectively. I like a nicely crafted final model as much as the next person, but for development, give me stuff like this!

 

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new technology

I am always looking to what is coming in technology, and how that can free-up form to allow it to do what it wants to do. Solar panels have long been something that students typically stick on, rather than considering them to be a material that has its own unique properties. After all, what is the difference between a photovoltaic panel and a brick? But new technology has the potential to allow for still other ways of integrating this essential technology. (For integrate it we must! Some of my colleagues can’t seem to find a way to look at these aesthetically, yet see no problem in having boilers and AC. Why is one tech acceptable, yet another not? Habit, mostly. Habit of thought.)

spherical-solar-cellssolar-spin-cell

These spherical solar cells are really cool. The actual cells are the little dots, and the whole in this case is inserted into a concentrating lens about the size of a fist. The nice thing about this is that they could be mounted onto the flowing surfaces of a biomorphic project, maybe looking like dew drops on a leaf. Another cool form factor I’ve come across is this spinning conical-shaped collector. Much larger than the sphere, of course, but another take that alters the flat plate mindset.

solar-scattering algorithm

There have been so many innovations happening in the lab and in start-ups. Particularly interesting are the nano scale developments, such as this light scattering pattern. Of course I wish it would be a visible pattern maker, but even that is possible, since more color options are becoming available as well.

I am a graduate of SCI-Arc, which has had three different locations over its existence. A Home Depot opened right next to its second location. It was apparently a beta-testing store, meaning that they used the store to evaluate trends for the overall market. The way the students use material is nothing like the standard market; they see potential and application completely unlike the average person. I like to think that the way students use things, how they see the potential in things, can influence markets.

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